Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Increasing aerobic capacity VO2max reduces adiposity, maintains weight, and reduces the risk of developing obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Two major determinants of aerobic capacity are the metabolic properties specific to a particular muscle fiber type and the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver nutrient-rich content to the muscle.
Biological differences exist in the body composition of blacks and whites. We reviewed literature on the differences and similarities between the 2 races relative to fat-free body mass water, mineral, and protein , fat patterning, and body dimensions and proportions. In general, blacks have a greater bone mineral density and body protein content than do whites, resulting in a greater fat-free body density. Additionally, there are racial differences in the distribution of subcutaneous fat and the length of the limbs relative to the trunk. The possibility that these differences are a result of ethnicity rather than of race is also examined. Because most equations that predict relative body fat were derived from predominantly white samples, biological variation between the races in these body-composition indexes has practical significance. Systematic error can result in the inaccurate estimation of the relative body fat of blacks, and therefore of definitions of obesity, if these inherent differences are ignored. Traditionally, the classic 2-component models of Siri 1 and Brozek et al 2 , which separate the body into fat and fat-free components, have been used to obtain reference measures of body composition. The fat-free body FFB can be further subdivided into water, protein, and mineral components. This chemical model relies on several assumptions: 1 that the density of fat is 0.
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Keywords: Ethnic differences, muscle fascicle length, muscle pennation angle, peroneal reaction time, tibial reaction time. Objective: To measure differences in reaction time and morphology of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscles between black and white people. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five healthy recreational male athletes 12 black, 13 white were enrolled in this study. Electromyographic activity parameters reaction time, reaction duration and reaction magnitude of the muscles were measured using an ankle supination tilting platform. Morphology pennation angle, fascicle length and muscle thickness was evaluated by means of ultrasonographic measurements. Conclusion: The results of this study did not reveal differences in electromyographic activity or muscle morphology of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscles between black and white people. Ankle injuries are one of the most common injuries in competitive sports and recreational activities. Possible contributing factors for ankle sprains are impaired proprioception 3 , 4 , postural control 5 , 6 , muscle strength 7 , 8 , and prolonged peroneal reaction time 9 - When the ankle is suddenly inverted, the peroneal and tibialis anterior muscles create a dynamic defense mechanism to protect against a lateral ankle sprain. The temporal latency between sudden inversion of the ankle and the first reflexive contraction of the peroneal or tibialis anterior muscles is defined as the reaction time of the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior muscle.
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