Cultivated medicinal plants
It is known under names warty birch, weeping birch tree, birch deaf, Berezina.
Tree up to 25 m. Flowering in April — may (simultaneously with opening of leaves), fruits ripen from August — September until mid-winter.
Propagated by seeds, vegetative (shoots).
The most widely distributed in Western and Central Siberia, European part of Russia (except the far North and South), Ukraine, the Caucasus, Northern Kazakhstan, Tarbagatai, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Western Tien Shan.
Often forms pure stands of birch — and quickly “populate” the place of the felling, burned pine forests, spruce forests, listvennicy, oak forests. Use the buds (before blooming). the outer part of the bark, juice, birch charcoal.
In the birch buds contain essential oil (3,5—5,3%), comprising sesquiterpene alcohol betulol (41 — 47%), ester betulola with acetic acid (30-45%), betulin; tannins, resin; 5-HYDROXY-7, 4-dimethoxyflavone (0.3 percent).
In the bark contains betulin; glycosides — betulonic and haultain; alkaloids; tannins (up to 15%); suberin.
Birch buds (Gemmae Betulae) in the form of tincture, decoction, infusion used as a diuretic and disinfectant for edema renal and cardiac origin.
Receive from the bark of the birch tar (Pix liquida Betulae). contains phenol, toluene, xylene, resin used to treat eczema, psoriasis, scabies.
Birch tar is included in the ointment Wilkinson (Unguentum Wilkinsoni). used as antiseptic, antiparasitic agents with scabies, fungal diseases of the skin and the structure of balsamic liniment by Vishnevsky’s method (Linimentum balsamicum Wishnevsky) — Vishnevsky ointment is in the treatment of wounds, ulcers, bedsores.
Birch juice (Succus Betulae) is used in diseases of the lungs, bronchitis, tuberculosis as a General tonic.
Tablets of activated carbon (Tabulettae Carbonis activati). Carbol (Carbolenum) shall apply with dyspepsia, flatulence (absorbent gas), food intoxication, poisoning alkaloids, salts of heavy metals.
Crataegus sanguinea Pall.
Use flowers and fruits. In the fruit organic acids (ursolic, oleanolic, chlorogenic, Krutikova, coffee, lemon), flavonoids (hyperoside, giperin, quercetin, vitexin), tannins, sorbitol, choline, acetylcholine, fatty oil, Β-sitosterol, carotenoids, fructose, and pectin.
In the flowers — coffee and chlorogenic acid, flavonoids (hyperoside, quercetin, quercitrin), carotenoids, acetylcholine, choline, trimethylamine, volatile oil, organic acids. In seeds — a fatty oil (over 30%).
It is known under the names of the hawthorn blood-red, hawthorn, Siberian, Glod, noblewoman.
Tall shrub or small tree up to 5 m. Flowering in may — June, fruits ripen from late August. Propagated by seeds and vegetative shoots.
Distributed in West and East Siberia, Eastern Kazakhstan.
Grows in forest and steppe zones at the edges and glades, in sparse dry forests, on the floodplains.
Apply liquid extract (Extractum passiflorae Crataegi). tincture (Tinctura Crataegi). infusion of flowers of hawthorn (Crataegi Infusum florum). infusion of hawthorn fruit (Crataegi Infusum fructu um) in functional disorders of cardiac activity, hypertension, angioneurosis, atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal tachycardia. Hawthorn extract part of the drug Kardiovalen (Cardiovalenum). used for rheumatic heart disease, cardiosclerosis with circulatory problems I—III stages, angina and vegetative neurosis.
Along with hawthorn krovenosny allowed the use of hawthorn (C. oxyacantha L.). hawthorn white-naped (S. dahurica Koehne ex Schneid). hawthorn odnopestichnyj (C. monogyna Jacq.) and hawthorn Altai (C. altaica Lange).
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.
It grows in dry coniferous pine and pine-spruce forests, peat bogs, in upland and lowland tundra.
They use leaves contain phenolic glycosides arbutin (9%) and methyl-arbutin, also such specific, edenhall, lycopene; Gallic, ellagic, quinic, tartaric and ursolic acid, hyperoside and other flavonoids, tannins.
Perennial evergreen kustarnichek up to 25 cm Flowering in may — June, fruits ripen in August — September. Propagated by seeds and vegetative rhizomes. Fruits in 10 to 15 years.
Distributed almost throughout Russia, in the forest and tundra zones of Siberia, in the Caucasus mountains.
Decoctions and infusions of leaves of a cowberry. Cowberry leaves and briquettes in the form of decoction (Decoctum folii Vitis idaeai) is used as a diuretic and disinfectant in diseases of the bladder and urinary tract.